Rest Periods and Resistance Programming
Rest periods between sets provide modest benefits in the short-term that can add up to significantly more training volume (reps, sets, load) over time. Increasing training volume yields greater results in strength, endurance, and muscular development (up to a certain point, at which one ends up over-training).1 One aspect we should avoid is attempting to manipulate rest periods for any acute hormonal response as hormonal response is highly variable and may not necessarily be predictive of strength and lean tissue gains. 4
But how do we maximize recovery and effectiveness of targeting the muscle and minimize amount of time spent in the gym (as well as prevent resting excessive amounts and effectively wasting your time)? Here at Maui Athletics®, we tailor your specific rest periods between sets in your Program based off of the current literature, the type of movement/muscles involved, your goals, and the fatigue that would be present during that period of your overall workout.
Often times too short of a rest period can be detrimental to overall recovery and total training volume. Schoenfeld et al found: “Longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy”.2 In this study they compared 1 to 3 minute rest intervals using full body compound workouts and found maximal strength and muscle thickness were both greater in the 3 minute interval period.
According to the American College of Sports Medicine position stand: “It is recommended that strength programs sequence exercises to optimize the preservation of exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher-intensity before lower-intensity exercises). For novice (untrained individuals with no RT experience or who have not trained for several years) training, it is recommended that loads correspond to a repetition range of an 8-12 repetition maximum (RM). For intermediate (individuals with approximately 6 months of consistent RT experience) to advanced (individuals with years of RT experience) training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range from 1 to 12 RM in a periodized fashion with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using 3- to 5-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s CON; 1-2 s ECC). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d x wk(-1) for novice training, 3-4 d x wk(-1) for intermediate training, and 4-5 d x wk(-1) for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training and 2) use of light loads (0-60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises; 30-60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 3-5 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise (three to five sets). It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (>15) using short rest periods (<90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand as with prior ones, recommendations should be applied in context and should be contingent upon an individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status."3
For hypertrophy goals, it would be smart to consider a 1-3 minute rest interval (depending on the muscle being targeted and whether compound vs isolation). Abs, calves and traps, for instance, tend to recover faster and can therefore benefit from shorter rest periods. Larger muscle group compound exercises such as deadlift, squat, and bench press would benefit from a 2-3 min rest period during hypertrophy training.
For strength goals, it would be smart to consider a 3-5 minute rest interval. Because of the heavier load lifted during these exercises, more time is required for adequate recovery between sets. Larger muscle group compound exercises such as deadlift, squat, and bench press would benefit from a ~4 min rest period during strength training.
For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads be performed for high repetitions (>15) using short rest period of <90 seconds.